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Table 1 Tested extraintestinal E. coli (ExPEC)-typical virulence associated genes (VAGs).

From: Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group

Gene(s) or operon Description
afa/draB Afimbrial/Dr antigen-specific adhesin
crl Curli fiber gene
fimC Type 1 fimbriae (D-mannose specific adhesin)
hra Heat-resistant agglutinin
iha Iron-regulated-gene-homologue adhesin
papC Pilus associated with pyelonephritis
sfa/focCD S fimbriae (sialic acid-specific) and F1C fimbriae
tsh 1 Temperature sensitive hemagglutinin
mat Meningitis associated and temperature regulated fimbriae
Iron acquisition
chuA Heme receptor gene (E. coli haem utilization)
fyuA Ferric yersinia uptake (yersiniabactin receptor)
ireA Iron-responsive element (putative catecholate siderophore receptor)
iroN 1 Catecholate siderophore (salmochelin) receptor
irp2 Iron repressible protein (yersiniabactin synthesis)
iucD 1 Aerobactin synthesis
sitD chr. Salmonella iron transport system gene
sitD ep.1 Salmonella iron transport system gene
Protectins/Serum resistance
cvi/cva 1 Structural genes of colicin V operon (Microcin ColV)
iss 1 Increased serum survival
neuC K1 capsular polysaccharide
kpsMT II Group II capsule antigens
ompA Outer membrane protein
traT 1 Transfer Protein
astA EAST1 (heat stable cytotoxin associated with enteroaggregative E. coli)
sat Secreted autotransporter toxin
vat Vacuolating autotransporter toxin
hlyA Haemolysin A
gimB Genetic island associated with newborn meningitis
ibeA Invasion of brain endothelium
tia Toxigenic invasion locus in ETEC strains
pic Serin protease autotransporter
malX Pathogenicity-associated island marker CFT073
  1. 1 Genes associated with large plasmids in APEC, like pAPEC-O2-ColV [NC_007675], pTJ100 [AY553855], and pAPEC-O1-ColBM [DQ381420].
  2. Primer references are cited in Ewers et al[33].