Summary of the analyses by Sechi and colleagues involving Sardinian diabetic populations and healthy volunteers [17, 28, 53]. Panels A and B: The data clearly revealed that T1DM patients show significant humoral immune responses to MAP (recombinant) proteins such as HbHa, Gsd & MptD; MAP lysate preparation; and specific phages corresponding to MAP specific protein MptD (mentioned as M13 MptD or fMptD) when compared to healthy controls and T2DM patients. Panel C: Multiplex ELISA analysis involving MptD specific phage (M13MptD), MAP lysate, Gsd and HbHa used against T1DM patients sera. Values on the Y- axis denote optical density values corresponding to anti-MAP serum immunoglobulin status. The dark, solid, horizontal lines represent median OD values for each group. Details of ELISA methods and choice of MAP antigens etc. have already been dealt with previously [17, 28, 53].