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Table 1 List of studies mentioned with no or negative effects of probiotics on critically ill patients

From: Treating critically ill patients with probiotics: Beneficial or dangerous?

Study Study design Number of patients Probiotics/Synbiotics Results
Jain et al. [11] double-blind, randomized, placebo-control. 90 ICU patients: 45 verum vs 45 placebo. 4 × 109 of Lact. acidophilus, Bifid. lactis, L. bulgaricus, Strept. thermophilus + 7,5 g Oligofructose. less potentially pathogenic bact. no differences: septic outcome mortality, ICU stay.
McNaught et al. [12] nonblinded, randomized, nonplacebo. 103 critical lll: 51 verum vs 52 placebo. L. plantarum 299v + oatmeal + fruit drink. no differences: intestinal permeability, CRP level morbidity + mortality.
Olah et al. [13] double-blind, randomized, placebo-control. 62 patients with acute pancreatitis: 29 vs 33. Synbiotic 2000 Forte. no differences: mortality, septic complications, organ failure.
Barraud et al. [14] double-blind, randomized, placebo-control. 167 ICU patients: 84 verum vs 83 placebo. 2 × 1010 Lact. rhamnosus GG. no differences: mortality, ICU acquired infections.