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Table 2 List of studies mentioned with positive effects of probiotics on critically ill patients

From: Treating critically ill patients with probiotics: Beneficial or dangerous?

Study Study design Number of patients Probiotics/Synbiotics Results
Alberda et al. [15] double-blind, randomized, placebo-control. 28 ICU patients: 14 verum vs 14 placebo. 9 × 1011 L. casei, L. plantarum, Strept. salivarius, B. infantis L. acidophilus, B. longum, L. delbrueckii, B. breve. increase in IgA + IgG in verum group.
Spindler-Vessel et al. [16] nonblinded, randomized, nonplacebo. 113 ICU trauma pat.: 87 verum vs 26 placebo. 1010 of P. pentosaceus, 1010 L. paracasei,1010 L. plantarum + 2,5 g ß-glucan, inulin, pectin, starch. reduction in: pneumonias+ intestinal permeability + procalcitonin levels.
Olah et al. [17] double-blind, randomized, placebo-control. 45 patients with acute pancreatitis: 23 vs 22 109 L plantarum 299 vs heat killed bacteria + 10 g oat fibre. less septic complications in verum group.
Forestier et al. [18] double-blind, randomized, placebo-control. 208 ICU patients: 104 verum vs104 placebo. 109 Lact. rhamnosus, 109 Lact. casei. P. aeruginosa colonization + infection is delayed in verum.
Kotzampassi et al. [19] double-blind, randomized, placebo-control. 65 ICU trauma pat.:32 verum vs 33 placebo. Synbiotic 2000 Forte. reduced rate of infection, SIRS, severe sepsis + mortality in verum.
Klarin et al. [20] nonblinded, randomized, nonplacebo. 44 ICU patients: 22 verum vs 22 109 Lact. plantarum 299v + oatmeal. colonisation of C. difficile not detectable in verum group.
Morrow et al. [21] double-blind, randomized, placebo-control. 146 ICU patients: 73 verum vs 73 placebo. 1010 Lact. rhamnosus GG109 Lact. casei. development of VAP less likely + less CDAD in verum group.
Frohmader et al. [22] double-blind, randomized, placebo control. 45 ICU patients: 20 verum vs 25 placebo. VSL#3. effective in reducing frequency of liquid stool.