Chain formation of one E. coli isolate from a common blackbird. Fluorescence images were taken after incubation in LB medium (overnight), cell culture media (four hours) and after incubation on epithelial cells (four hours). Chain formation is induced by cell culture media, and stimulated by epithelial cells. Isolate in A) LB medium: no chains, B) Caco-2 cell culture medium, C) 5637 cell culture medium, D) IPEC-J2 and PK-15 cell culture medium. Isolate after four-hour adhesion assay with cell culture media on E) Caco-2, F) 5637, G) PK-15 cells. H) Isolate after four-hour adhesion assay with LB media on IPEC-J2 cells. A- D) Phase contrast microscopy. E- H) Fluorescence microscopy. Scale: 10 μm.