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Table 2 DNA damage induced in cortex and medulla of PA-treated, Clindamycin-treated, carnosine and carnitine protected groups

From: The neurotoxic effect of clindamycin - induced gut bacterial imbalance and orally administered propionic acid on DNA damage assessed by the comet assay: protective potency of carnosine and carnitine

Groups Parameters
  Tail length (μm) Tail DNA % Tail moment
Control Cortex 0.97 ± 0.24 0.96 ± 0.33 0.98 ± 0.59
Medulla 1.12 ± 0.24 1.03 ± 0.32 1.21 ± 0.57
Propionic acid Cortex 6.80 ± 0.74** 6.10 ± 0.20** 41.51 ± 5.09**
Medulla 7.27 ± 1.33** 6.67 ± 0.99** 49.32 ±15.53**
Clindamycin Cortex 1.81 ± 0.32* 1.71 ± 0.36* 3.16 ± 1.26*
Medulla 1.75 ± 0.29* 1.64 ± 0.40 2.95 ± 1.25
Carnosine Cortex 1.10 ± 0.14 1.05 ± 0.20 1.18 ± 0.36
Medulla 1.15 ± 0.15 1.00 ± 0.10 1.16 ± 0.27
Carnitine Cortex 1.25 ± 0.07 1.13 ± 0.09 1.42 ± 0.19
Medulla 1.28 ± 0.03 1.07 ± 0.14 1.37 ± 0.17
PA +Carnosine Cortex 3.96 ± 0.09** 3.87 ± 0.45** 15.34 ± 2.11**
Medulla 3.83 ± 0.27** 3.69 ± 0.32** 14.19 ± 2.24**
PA +Carnitine Cortex 3.50 ± 0.60** 3.37 ± 0.47** 11.96 ± 3.80*
Medulla 2.85 ± 0.27** 2.63 ± 0.28** 7.56 ± 1.46**
clindamycin +Carnosine Cortex 1.58 ± 0.10* 1.42 ± 0.09 2.25 ± 0.29*
Medulla 1.68 ± 0.07* 1.23 ± 0.12 2.07 ± 0.12
clindamycin+Carnitine Cortex 1.73 ± 0.20* 1.54 ± 0.11* 2.67 ± 0.50*
  Medulla 1.70 ± 0.21* 1.52 ± 0.06 2.60 ± 0.39*
  1. Independent t-test between the control and PPA groups of Cortex and Medulla in Tailed %, Untailed %, Tail length (μm), Tail DNA % and Tail moment.
  2. * Significant at 0.05 level.
  3. ** Significant at 0.01 level