Bacterial taxonomic summary for the human donor and the recipient gnotobiotic pigs. A: Taxonomy breakdown at the genus level (for genera collectively accounting for more than 0.5% of total community) for all subjects. Probiotic treatment and virulent human rotavirus (HRV) challenge are designated as±LGG or±HRV, respectively. For example, ?LGG-HRV means no LGG treatment and no virulent HRV challenge. B: HRV infection changes the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes regardless of LGG. Error bars represent standard error of the mean. The p values are based on Mann-Whitney test. The statistical significance was the same when we used the unpaired t-test to log-transformed data. C: Combination of LGG and HRV changes relative abundance of Enterococcus. D: Combination of LGG and HRV changes relative abundance of Streptococcus. The p values in C and D were based on Two-Way ANOVA.