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Table 3 Mean ± S.D. of all the measured parameters in PPA-treated, ampicillin-treated and animals fed various diets compared to control

From: The neurotoxic effects of ampicillin-associated gut bacterial imbalances compared to those of orally administered propionic acid in the etiology of persistent autistic features in rat pups: effects of various dietary regimens

Parameter Group N Mean ± S.D. %Change P value a P value b P value c
Glutathione (μg/ml) Control 10 67.02 ± 14.29 100.00    0.001
Pro-acid 10 53.38 ± 11.98 79.65 0.033
Ampicillin (A) 10 44.35 ± 9.97 66.18 0.001 0.084
A + CHO 10 43.89 ± 6.51 65.49 0.001 0.041
A + Protein 10 72.46 ± 14.94 108.12 0.416 0.006
A + Oil 9 52.33 ± 16.34 78.08 0.052 0.874
Lipid peroxides (MD μmoles/ml) Control 10 0.057 ± 0.005 100.00    0.001
Pro-acid 10 0.118 ± 0.037 206.48 0.001
Ampicillin 10 0.070 ± 0.010 122.94 0.002 0.003
A + CHO 10 0.067 ± 0.022 116.46 0.204 0.002
A + Protein 10 0.119 ± 0.017 208.41 0.001 0.933
A + Oil 9 0.157 ± 0.031 274.43 0.001 0.025
Glutathione S-transferase activity (U/ml) Control 10 227.06 ± 50.39 100.00    0.011
Pro-acid 10 190.62 ± 28.97 83.95 0.063
Ampicillin 10 256.14 ± 21.94 112.81 0.120 0.001
A + CHO 10 235.17 ± 50.96 103.57 0.725 0.027
A + Protein 10 245.27 ± 45.71 108.02 0.408 0.005
A + Oil 9 240.74 ± 26.27 106.02 0.476 0.001
Catalase activity (U/dL) Control 10 6.59 ± 1.89 100.00    0.001
Pro-acid 10 9.31 ± 3.48 141.31 0.047
Ampicillin 10 7.53 ± 2.09 114.28 0.306 0.186
A + CHO 10 4.80 ± 3.03 72.84 0.130 0.006
A + Protein 10 10.56 ± 3.77 160.24 0.011 0.452
A + Oil 9 8.91 ± 2.41 135.15 0.032 0.774
Potassium (mmol/L) Control 10 10.10 ± 1.97 100.00    0.001
Pro-acid 10 8.48 ± 1.81 83.95 0.072
Ampicillin 10 9.18 ± 2.26 90.84 0.342 0.456
A + CHO 10 15.19 ± 3.34 150.34 0.001 0.001
A + Protein 10 13.74 ± 1.89 136.00 0.001 0.001
A + Oil 9 15.31 ± 3.55 151.61 0.001 0.001
Creatine kinase (U/L) Control 8 3900.01 ± 495.26 100.00    0.001
Pro-acid 10 3948.36 ± 422.41 101.24 0.826
Ampicillin 9 4138.42 ± 353.99 106.11 0.267 0.306
A + CH 9 3824.58 ± 618.43 98.07 0.787 0.614
A + Protein 7 3945.15 ± 159.99 101.16 0.813 0.983
A + Oil 7 3062.79 ± 257.84 78.53 0.002 0.001
Lactate dehydrogenase (μmoles) Control 10 1842.16 ± 420.30 100.00    0.001
Pro-acid 10 2525.06 ± 322.42 137.07 0.001
Ampicillin 10 2547.80 ± 232.25 138.30 0.001 0.858
A + CH 10 2773.58 ± 208.62 150.56 0.001 0.056
A + Protein 8 2512.36 ± 505.38 136.38 0.007 0.949
A + Oil 6 2564.08 ± 381.26 139.19 0.004 0.830
  1. aP value between control group and other groups.
  2. bP value between Pro-acid group and other groups.
  3. CP value between all groups.
  4. N.B. Variations in the numbers of investigated samples in each group are due to the insufficiency of certain samples or the death of animals during the experimental period (e.g., animals fed a high-lipid diet).