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Fig. 1 | Gut Pathogens

Fig. 1

From: Animal models to study acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mammals

Fig. 1

Systemic effects of intestinal inflammation. Multiple areas of the body can be influenced by intestinal inflammation. After stimulation occurs in the intestine, circulating macrophages stimulate the release of cytokines. These cytokines not only promote macrophage and dendritic cell recruitment, but also stimulate the hypothalamus to alter food intake and increase the rate of metabolic activity through adrenal gland stimulation by ACTH and the production of corticosterone. Simultaneously, cytokines stimulate muscles to promote amino acid usage that can influence the liver and bone marrow. Acute-phase proteins released by the liver also influence other cytokine production, and the intermingled cycle continues as the intestinal mucosa is stimulated. ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone

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