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Table 1 Characteristics of selected studies reporting the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in mainland China

From: Systematic review of time trends in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in China and the USA

Reference Location Population N Age of study population, years Women,  % Rural/urban Test Study midpoint H. pylori infection,  %
Studies with midpoints before the mean of all study midpoints
 Forman et al. 1990 [16] 46 rural counties General 1882 35‒64 50 Rural Serum IgG 1983.75 60.4
595 35–39 55.8
913 40–49 56.6
1061 50–59 65.8
455 60–64 62.5
 Yuan et al. 1999 [17] Shanghai city Healthy controls (cases had gastric cancer) 548 45‒64 NS Urban Serum IgG 1988 82
 Zhang et al. 1996 [18] 14 randomly selected rural villages in Linqu County (Shandong province) General (endoscopic survey) 2646 35‒64 47 Rural Serum IgG 1989 72
 Wang et al. 2008 [19] 67 rural counties General 4020 35‒64; distributed equally across 10-year age groups NS Rural Serum IgG 1989 71.4
 Chen et al. 2003 [20] Shanghai Health check 668 ≥20 38 Urban Serum IgG 1990 44.5
116 20–29 41.4
132 30–39 46.2
112 40–49 47.3
104 50–59 50.0
204 ≥60 40.7
 Chen et al. 2002 [21] Shanghai Health check 822 ≥20 NS Rural Serum IgG 1990 62.0
147 20–29 58.5
182 30–39 64.3
168 40–49 65.5
121 50–59 68.6
204 ≥60 55.9
 Chen et al. 2007 [22] Guangzhou city Health check 456 ≥20 48 Urban Serum IgG 1993 70.2
135 20–29 65.2
102 30–39 72.6
109 40–49 76.2
 You et al. 1998 [23] Village in Cangshan County (Shandong province), which has a low incidence of gastric cancer General 197 35‒64 50 Rural Serum IgG 1994 55
 Ma et al. 1998 [24] Single village in Linqu County (Shandong province), which has a high incidence of gastric cancer General (endoscopic survey) 289 35‒64 48 Rural Serum IgG 1994 67.5
131 35–44 77.3
81 45–54 63.0
77 55–64 62.3
 Wong et al. 1999 [25] Seven villages (Wuhong, Yingchen, Meihua, Xuojan, Yutien, Jiangtien, and Hunane) in Changle County, which has a high incidence of gastric cancer Health check 1828 18–76
Mean: 43.0
NS Rural Serum IgG 1994.5 80.9
 Cai et al. 2000 [26] Changle County (Fujian province), which has a high incidence of gastric cancer Healthy controls (cases had gastric cancer) 100 ≥30 14 NS Serum IgG 1997.25 68
5 30–39
18 40–49
22 50–59
38 60–69
18 ≥70
 Brown et al. 2001 [27] Linqu County (Shandong province) General 3228 NS 63 Rural Serum IgG 1998 60.6
770 35–39 63.0
848 40–44 62.5
893 45–54 60.0
299 55–59 57.0
478 ≥60 57.0
Studies with midpoints after the mean of all study midpoints
 Chen et al. 2003 [20] Shanghai Health check 1272 ≥20 37 Urban Serum IgG 2001 65.4
168 20–29 52.4
251 30–39 60.6
460 40–49 70.0
151 50–59 72.8
242 ≥60 66.1
 Chen et al. 2007 [22] Guangzhou city Health check 1001 ≥20 NS Urban Serum IgG 2003.5 56.4
253 20–29 53.4
196 30–39 54.6
204 40–49 63.2
163 50–59 57.7
 Cheng et al. 2009 [28] Beijing Health check 1161 ≥20 47 Both Breath test 2003.75 46.6
46 20–29 41.3
222 30–39 49.5
397 40–49 45.6
369 50–59 44.4
94 ≥60 53.2
 Chen et al. 2008 [29] Five regions of Zhejiang province Cirrhotic patients 457 Mean: 57.3
SD: 13
26 NS Biopsies (rapid urease test and histology) 2004.25 60.6
 Shi et al. 2008 [30] Three rural villages in Xiangshui and Gaoyou (Northern Jiangsu province) General 1322 ≥20 57 Rural Serum IgG and breath test 2005 62.1
48 20–30 56
84 30–40 67.3
287 40–50 57.6
297 50–60 64.3
372 >60 60.6
 Zhang et al. 2009 [31] Yanqing County (Beijing municipality), which has a low incidence of gastric cancer General 503 40‒79 53 Rural Stool antigen assay 2006.5 41.4
178 40–49 37.1
215 50–59 44.2
110 60–79 42.7
 Zhang et al. 2009 [31] Muping County (Shandong province), which has a high incidence of gastric cancer General 526 40‒79 53 Rural Stool antigen assay 2006.5 51
214 40–49 47.7
208 50–59 53.4
104 60–79 52.9
 Peng et al. 2009 [32] Guangzhou city Health check 2580 ≥18
Mean: 45.1
SD: 14.2
50 Urban Breath test and biopsy 2006.75 28
 Li et al. 2010 [33] Five regions in Shanghai General 3151 18–80
Mean: 47.7
SD: 14.1
56 Both Serum IgG 2007.75 73.3
 Wang et al. 2011 [34] Shandong province Health check 1637 Mean: 47 39 NS Serum IgG 2008.75 35.5
 Xia et al. 2012 [35] Shijiazhuang city Migrant workers 324 Mean: 37.8 59 Urban Breath test 2009.5 41.0
211 <40 44.1
113 ≥40 35.4
 Wang et al. 2012 [36] Xi’an, north-west China, which has a high incidence of gastric cancer Healthy controls (cases had gastric cancer) 514 Mean: 58.2 27 NS Serum IgG 2009.5 35
 Jing Jiang et al. 2012 [37] Jilin province Healthy controls from routine health check (cases were patients with gastric cancer) 932 35–80 42 Both Serum IgG 2009.5 49.7
 Hu et al. 2012 [38] Dalian Port Health check (maritime workers) 3995 ≥18 21 Urban Serum IgG 2010.5 44.9
945 18–29 43.1
1245 30–39 41.2
1111 40–49 50.1
 Cao et al. 2014 [39] Tianjin Healthy controls (cases had fundic gland polyps) 530 NS NS Urban Breath test, rapid urease test, or histology 2011.75 42.3
 Xu et al. 2014 [40] Zhejiang province Health check 8820 Median: 46.0
Range: 39‒53
40 NS Breath test 2013 43.8
  1. IgG immunoglobulin G, NS not specified, SD standard deviation