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Table 7 Co-infection combinations with two or more infectious etiologies detected in diarrheagenic group vs controls

From: Multiple etiologies of infectious diarrhea and concurrent infections in a pediatric outpatient-based screening study in Odisha, India

Combinations of pathogens Frequency (%) of detection cases (n = 130) Frequency (%) of detection controls (n = 48) Statistical analysis
Double infections
 Shigella+STEC 5 (3.84) 0 Two-tailed p value by Mantel–Haenszel Chi-square test = 0.004915*
 Shigella+EPEC 3 (2.3) 0
 Cryptosporidium+EPEC 1 (0.76) 1 (2.08)
 EPEC+O157 1 (0.76) 1 (2.08)
 Rotavirus+Shigella 7 (5.38) 0
 Adenovirus+EPEC 2 (1.53) 0
 Adenovirus+Cryptosporidium 1 (0.76) 0
 Rotavirus+EPEC 6 (4.61) 0
 Shigella+O157 2 (1.53) 0
 Shigella +EAEC 2 (1.53) 0
 Adenovirus+EAEC 1 (0.76) 0
 Rotavirus+EAEC 1 (0.76) 0
 EPEC+EAEC 2 (1.53) 0
 EPEC+STEC 0 1 (2.08)
 Double infection (total) 33 (25.38) 3 (6.25)
Triple infections
 Shigella+STEC+EPEC 2 (1.53) 0 Two-tailed p value by Mid-P exact test = 0.03917*
 EPEC+EHEC+O157 1 (0.76) 0
 Rotavirus+Shigella+STEC 2 (1.53) 0
 Rotavirus+Cryptosporidium+EPEC 1 (0.76) 0
 Rotavirus+Shigella+EPEC 1 (0.76) 0
 Rotavirus+Shigella+EPEC 1 (0.76) 0
 Shigella+STEC+EPEC 1 (0.76) 0
 Adenovirus+Shigella +EPEC 1 (0.76) 0
 EAEC+O157+EAEC 1 (0.76) 0
 Triple infection (total) 10 (7.69) 0
 Adenovirus+Shigella+STEC+EPEC+O157+EAEC 1 (0.76) 0 Two-tailed p value by Mid-P exact test = 0.7303
Combination of Pathogens (more than three infections)  
  1. Statistical analysis is shown considering only total number of cases and control subjects and respective co-isolation rates (double, triple, or more than three infections). In a 2 × 2 table analysis for comparison of proportions between cases and controls for double infections group, all expected values (row total X column total/grand total) were ≥5. So Chi-square analysis was recommended. For triple infections group and more than three infections one, at least one expected value (row total X column total/grand total) was <5. So Mid-P exact test was recommended rather than Chi-square (http://www.openepi.com)
  2. n total number of subjects
  3. * Statistically significant