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Table 1 Mechanisms of action of probiotics

From: Probiotic engineering: towards development of robust probiotic strains with enhanced functional properties and for targeted control of enteric pathogens

Mechanism of action Probiotic bacteria Pathogen Functionality References
Competitive exclusion L. acidophilus; L. johnsonii S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, L. monocytogenes Inhibited adherence of pathogens to Caco-2 cells [33]
L. casei subsp. rhamnosus EPEC, Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Klebsiella pneumoniae Inhibited adherence of pathogens to Caco-2 cells [33]
L. rhamnosus; L. acidophilus E. coli O157:H7 Inhibited adherence of pathogens to T-84 epithelial cell; inhibited colonization to Caco-2 cells [33, 51]
L. acidophilus H. pylori Production of lacticins A164 and BH5 [37]
Production of inhibitory substances L. lactis E. coli, Salmonella Production of alyteserin-1a and A3APO [31]
B. longum Clostridium difficile, E. coli Production of bacteriocin [35]
L. salivarius L. monocytogenes Production of bacteriocin Abp118 [35]
L. sake L. monocytogenes Production of bacteriocin sakacin A [39]
L. plantarum L. monocytogenes Production of bacteriocins (plantaricins) [40]
L. lactis C. difficile Production of lacticin 3147 [45]
L. lactis, L. casei, L. acidophilus E. coli O157:H7 Reduced the growth of pathogen by lactic acid production and pH reductive effect [33]
Immune system modulation L. reuteri Salmonella Increased the production anti-Salmonella IgM [35]
L. rhamnosus E. coli O157:H7 Increased intestinal anti-E. coli IgA responses and blood leukocyte phagocytic activity [33]
L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus GG, L. johnsonii La1 S. Typhimurium Increased the production of anti-Salmonella IgA [42, 43]
Improved barrier function L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus GG E. coli O157:H7 Subvert the adherence of pathogen by increasing MUC2 and MUC3 in HT-29 epithelial cell line [45, 47]
L. acidophilus E. coli Protected against F-actin rearrangement, which was induced in an epithelial cell line on exposure to a pathogenic E. coli [45]
S. thermophilus; L. acidophilus Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) Increased transepithelial resistance, maintenance and enhancement of cytoskeletal and tight junctional protein phosphorylation in HT29 and Caco-2 cell lines [60]