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Table 2 Applications of bioengineering

From: Probiotic engineering: towards development of robust probiotic strains with enhanced functional properties and for targeted control of enteric pathogens

Applications Probiotics Genes/receptors expressed Action References
Improvement of stress tolerance L. paracasei Heat shock protein chaperones (GroES and GroEL) Improved thermotolerance (heat tolerance) of probiotic; increased solvent resistance by the probiotic strain [104]
L. salivarius Listerial betaine uptake system (BetL) Increase in the resistance of the probiotic to several stresses [110]
L. lactis Trehalose synthesis gene (ostAB) Enhanced probiotic’s resistance to gastric acid protection of the probiotic against damage caused by acid, cold, or heat shock [114, 115]
Production of antimicrobial peptides L. lactis A3APO and alyteserin Successfully inhibited E. coli and Salmonella [31]
Probiotic E. coli Cell receptor (ganglioside) for cholera toxin or ETEC heat-labile toxin Enterotoxins are sequestered by the probiotic E. coli thus protecting host against diarrheal infection [12]
L. reuteri Heat-stable (ST) and heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins Successfully bound to the enterotoxins and prevented enterotoxicity in a mouse model [12]
Enhancement of anti-inflammatory response L. lactis Elafin Significant reduction in inflammation [118]
L. lactis TGF-β Overall reduction of inflammation and colitis [120]
L. lactis IL-10 Successfully prevented colitis in murine models [121]
L. lactis Anti-TNF-α nanobodies Reduced the colonic inflammation [123]
L. lactis Internalin A Enhanced efficient internalization of L. lactis in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 [124]
Enhancement of colonization exclusion L. paracasei Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) Inhibited the adhesion of Listeria to host cells [94]
L. lactis Surface-associated flagellin Inhibited the binding and adhesion of pathogenic E. coli and S. enterica [126]
L. acidophilus K99 fimbriae Reduced the attachment of ETEC to porcine intestinal brush border [129]
Receptor mimicry system and toxin neutralization E. coli Nissle 1917; L. lactis Galactosyl-transferase genes; Tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) Recombinant bacteria neutralized shiga toxins, Stx1 or Stx2 [132]
Increased IgA levels led to protection of the host against the infections of the mucous membrane [135, 136]
E. coli Nissle 1917 Receptor GM1 Protected infant mice from challenge with virulent V. cholerae [139]
E. coli Nissle 1917; L. casei AI-2 co-expressed CAI-1 80% reduction in Ctx binding to the intestines of mice which reduced numbers of V. cholerae in treated mouse intestines [140]
Adhesins K99 Protected 80% of the vaccinated mice after challenge with a lethal dose of strains of ETEC K99 and K88 [142]
Vaccination L. lactis Virus spike protein VP8 Provided 100% protection against rotavirus infection [145]