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Table 1 Virulence genes of ExPEC encoding adhesins, toxins and siderophores

From: Virulence factors, prevalence and potential transmission of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from different sources: recent reports

Description Virulence genes Function ExPEC pathotype
Adhesins
Type 1 fimbriae fim Factor of colonization in extraintestinal infections, biofilm formation UPEC, NMEC, SEPEC, APEC
Afimbrial adhesin afa The non-fibrous adhesin binds to the DAF receptor on the cell surface epithelium, hemagglutination capacity UPEC
Dr fimbriae dra Binding to the DAF receptor on the surface epithelial cells and mediation of internalization bacteria to the host cells UPEC
P fimbriae pap Stimulate the production of cytokines by T lymphocytes, colonization factor in extraintestinal infections UPEC, SEPEC, APEC
S fimbriae sfa Adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, kidney, lower urinary tract cells; facilitate the penetration of bacteria into the tissues UPEC, NMEC
F1C fimbriae foc Adhesion to renal epithelial cells and endothelial cells of the bladder and kidneys UPEC
Iha iha Iron‐regulated‐gene‐homologue adhesion UPEC
Mat mat Meningitis associated and temperature regulated fimbriae NMEC
Curli fiber gene crl, csg Enable biofilm formation and promote pathogenicity UPEC, SEPEC, APEC
Antigen43 agn43(flu) Protein of autotransporter family, adhesion and biofilm development UPEC
Invasine
Ibe ABC ibeA,B,C Cell invasion into the host tissues NMEC, SEPEC, APEC
Iron uptake
Aerobactin iuc,aer Siderophore, acquisition of Fe2 + / 3 + in the host system UPEC, APEC
Iron repressible protein irp Yersiniabactin synthesis NMEC
Salmochelin iroN Siderophore receptor, use of Fe ions obtained from the body host UPEC, NMEC, SEPEC APEC
ChuA, Hma chu, hma Enable using of Fe from hemoglobin in the host system UPEC, SEPEC
SitABC sitA,B,C Transportation of Fe, Mn UPEC, APEC
Protectins/serum resistance
Transfer protein traT Inhibition of the classical pathway of complement activity NMEC, SEPEC APEC
Capsula antigens KpsMI-neuA, KpsMII The protection factor against phagocytosis and the spreading factor NMEC, SEPEC
Outer membrane protein omp Enable intracellular survival, evasion from the body’s defense. UPEC, NMEC
Increased serum survival iss The protection factor against phagocytosis NMEC, SEPEC, APEC
ColV, CvaC colV, cvaC Factor facilitating colonization NMEC, SEPEC, APEC
Toxins
Serin protease autotransporter pic Degrades mucins, facilitates colonization epithelium, damages of the cell membrane UPEC
Secreted autotransporter toxin sat Proteolytic toxin, effect cytotoxic—influences on cell vacuolization UPEC
Vacuolating autotransporter toxin vat Proteolytic toxin, induces host cell vacuolization UPEC, APEC
Hemolysin A hlyA Creating of pores in membranes of host cells (cell lysis) UPEC
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor cnf Engaging in cell necrosis UPEC, SEPEC
Cytolethal distending toxin cdt Cytolethal distending factor SEPEC