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Table 1 Effects of different bacterial species in the gut on response to CTLA-4 therapy

From: Mechanisms and microbial influences on CTLA-4 and PD-1-based immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer: a narrative review

Bacterial species in gut Effect on response to CTLA-4 therapy
Bacteroides fragilis Increased representation in feces correlates to decrease in tumor size in melanoma-bearing mice, possibly via polysaccharide A and IL-10 production.
Oral administration alone or in combination with B. cepacia to GF mice leads to decreased tumor size via DC maturation and IL-12 production
Bacteroides fragilis + Burkholderia cepacia Oral administration in combination with B. fragilis to GF mice leads to decreased tumor size via DC maturation and IL-12 production
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Oral administration alone to GF mice leads to decreased tumor size via DC maturation and IL-12 production
Faecalibacterium genus Increased representation in the gut leads to longer progression-free and overall survival in melanoma patients due to decreased Tregs in tumor microenvironment