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Table 2 Effects of different bacterial species in the gut on response to PD-1 therapy

From: Mechanisms and microbial influences on CTLA-4 and PD-1-based immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer: a narrative review

Bacterial species in gut Effect on response to PD-1 therapy
Bifidobacterium longum + Bifidobacterium breve Oral administration to melanoma-bearing mice led to decrease in tumor volume to the same degree at PD-1 therapy alone. Co-administration with PD-1 therapy led to an even greater reduction in tumor volume.
Akkermansia muciniphila Increased representation in the gut leads to a more robust response to PD-1 therapy in patients with melanoma, NSCLC and RCC due to increased production of IFN-gamma producing memory T cells
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Increased representation in the gut leads to longer progression-free survival in melanoma patients via increasing the concentration of CTLs in the tumor microenvironment