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Table 1 Summary of data used for analyses in the 26 articles

From: Gut microbiota changes in children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review

StudyCountryNo. of controls (GI status)Control: mean age ± SD; age rangeNo. of cases analysed (GI status)Case: Mean age ± SD; age rangeASD and behavioural toolsBacterial genome sourceMethods
Adams et al. [30]USA39 HC (− GI)7.7 ± 4.4; 2.5–1858 (± GI)6.9 ± 3.4; 2.5–18ATECFecalCultures, Vitek® 2 microbial identification system
De Angelis et al. [31]Italy10 SIB (− GI)4–1020 (− GI)4–10DSM-IV, ADI-R, CARS, ADOSFecalCultures, bTEFAP of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA
Finegold et al. [32]USA8 HC (n/a)n/a13 (+ GI)n/an/aFecal
Gastric and duodenal fluids
Cultures, 16S rRNA
Finegold et al. [33]USA7 SIB (± GI)
8 HC (± GI)
2–1333 (± GI)2–13Expert evaluationFecalbTEFAP of 16S rRNA gene at the DNA level
Finegold et al. [34]USA13 HC (− GI)2–933 (± GI)2–9n/aFecalCultures, PCR for the main C. perfringens toxins, verified with DNA sequencing
Gondalia et al. [35]AustraliaNonen/a28 (± GI)4.8 ± 3.3; 2–14CARS, expert evaluationFecalCultures
Gondalia et al. [36]Australia53 SIB (8% + GI)2–1251 (55% + GI)2–12CARS, expert evaluationFecalbTEFAP Gray28F 5′TTTGATCNTGGCTCAG and Gray519r 5′ GTNTTACNGCGGCKGCTG, qPCR
Inoue et al. [37]Japan6 HC (− GI)3–56 (− GI)3–5DSM-5, PARS, M-CHATFecal
Blood
16S rRNA, DNA microarray analysis of PBMC, qPCR
Iovene et al. [38]Italy33 HC (− GI)7.3 ± 3.147 (70% + GI)6.0 ± 2.8DSM-IV-TR, ADI-R, CARS, ADOSFecalCultures, Vitek® 2 microbial identification system
Kang et al. [39]USA20 HC (− GI)8.3 ± 4.4; 3–1620 (+ GI)6.7 ± 2.7; 3–16ADI-R, ADOS, ATEC, PDD-BIFecal16S rRNA, bTEFAP 104F (59-GGCGVACGGGTGAGTA A-39) and 530R (59-CCGCNGCNGCT GGCAC-39)
Kang et al. [40]USA20 HC (− GI)Age-matched18 (+ GI)7–16ADI-R, CARS, SRS, ABC, PGI-III, VABSFecal16S rRNA
Kang et al. [41]USA21 HC (± GI)8.4 ± 3.4, 4–1723 (± GI)10.1 ± 4.1; 4–17ADI-R, ADOS, ATEC, PDD-BIFecal16S rRNA, 104F (59-GGCGVACGGGTGAGTAA-39) and 530R (59-CCGCNGCNGCTGGCAC-39),
Kushak et al. [42]USA19 HC (+ GI)16.1 ± 1.321 (+ GI)14.4 ± 1.1DSM-IVDuodenal biopsy16S rRNA, Gray28F 50TTTGATCNTGGCTCAG
and Gray519r 50 GTNTTACNGCGGCKGCTG
Liu et al. [43]ChinaNonen/a20 (n/a)1–8DSM-5, CARS, ABC, SRSFecal16S rRNA, CD 38 and RORA mRNA, 338F 5′-ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCA-3′ and 806R 5′-GGACTACHVGGGTWTCTAAT-3′
Luna et al. [44]USA21 HC (71% + GI)3–18, + GI
3–14, -GI
14 (+ GI)4–13SRS, ADOSBlood biopsy from colonV1V3 and V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA
Parracho et al. [45]UK12 SIB (25% + GI)
10 HC (− GI)
6 ± 2.15, 2–10
6 ± 2.88, 3–12
58 (91% + GI)7 ± 3.76; 3–16n/aFecalFISH
Parracho et al. [46]UKNonen/a17 (± GI)4–16DBC-PFecalFISH
Shaaban et al. [47]Egypt30 HC (− GI)Age and gender-matched30 (− GI)7.1 ± 1.4; 5–9DSM-5, ADOS, ADI-R, ATEC, expert evaluationFecalqPCR
Son et al. [48]USA44 SIB (30% + GI)10.0 ± 1.8
8–13
59 (42% + GI)10.3 ± 1.8; 8–13ADI-R, ADOS, CBCLFecalqPCR, V1V2 and V1V3 regions of 16S rRNA
Song et al. [49]USA8 HC (n/a)n/a15 (n/a)n/an/aFecalTaqMan qPCR of 16srRNA
Strati et al. [50]Italy40 HC (27.5% + GI)9.2 ± 7.940 (12.5% + GI)11.1 ± 6.8DSM-5, ADOS, ABC, CARSFecal16S rRNA and ITS sequencing
Tomova et al. [51]Slovakia9 SIB (78% + GI)
10 HC (60% + GI)
5–17
2–11
10 (90% + GI)2–9ADI-R, CARS, expert evaluationFecalqPCR
Wang et al. [52]Australia22 SIB (27% + GI)
9 HC (11% + GI)
12 ± 1 (4.6–18.4)
9.5 ± 1.3 (3.5–15.2)
23 ( 39% + GI)10.3 ± 0.8; 3.1–17.3CARS, DSM-IVFecalqPCR
Wang et al. [53]Australia22 SIB (27% + GI)
9 HC (11% + GI)
3–1923 ( 39% + GI)3–19CARS, DSM-IVFecalqPCR
Williams et al. [54]USA7 HC (+ GI)4.0 ± 1.1; 3.9–5.515 (+ GI)4.5 ± 1.3; 3.5–5.9DSM-IV-TR, ADI-R, shortened CPEA regression interviewBiopsy from ileum and cecum16sRNA
Williams et al. [55]USA9 HC (+ GI)n/a23 (+ GI)n/aDSM-IV-TR symptoms, ADI-R, shortened CPEA regression interviewBiopsy from ileum and cecumSutterella-specific 16S rRNA, qPCR
  1. ABC = Autism Behaviour Checklist; ADI-R = Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised; ADOS = Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule; ATEC = Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist; b-TEFAP = Bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing; CARS = Childhood Autism Rating Scale score; CBCL = Child Behavior CheckList; CPEA = Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism; DBC-P = Developmental Behavior Checklist—Parent/Primary Carer; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; DSM-IV-R = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition text revised; DSM-5 = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition; FISH = fluorescence in situ hybridization; GI = gastrointestinal symptoms; GI (+) = GI symptoms present in the group; GI (−) = GI symptoms not present in the group; HC = Health controls; M-CHAT = Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers; n/a = not available; PBMC = Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; PARS = Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale; PDD-BI = Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavioral Inventory; PDD-NOS = Pervasive Developmental Disorder, not otherwise specified = Mild; PGI = Parent Global Impression; Severe = Autistic Disorder; SIB = Siblings without ASD, SRS = Social Responsiveness Scale; qPCR = quantitative Polymerase chain reaction, RORA = RAR Related Orphan Receptor A; rRNA = ribonucleic acid; VABS = Vineland Adaptative Behavior Scales