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Table 1 General characteristics of included studies

From: Proton pump inhibitors use and risk of developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year [reference], study location Case/control or case/cohort Age (year), mean (SD) Study design and setting Male, n (%) Adjusted for Follow up (months) NOS score
Aditi et al. 2012 [21]; USA 307/682 Not reported Retrospective;
cohort;
single center
Not reported Bilirubin, albumin, creatinine, INR, and protein in ascitic fluid 38 (mean) 7
Bajaj et al. 2009 [22]; USA 70/70 54.5 (13.0) Retrospective; case–control; single center 79 (56.4) CTP class, age, and admission time period 7
Campbell et al. 2008 [23]; USA 32/84 54.6 (10.7) Retrospective; case–control; single center 78 (67.2) Age, bilirubin, INR, creatinine, MELD score, DM, gender, history of SBP,
etiology of liver disease, and race
5
Choi et al. 2011 [24]; Korea 83/93 55.5 (10.7) Retrospective; case–control; single center 138 (78.4) CTP class, MELD score, and VB 7
Cole et al. 2016 [25]; Scotland 114/92 20–74 (range) Retrospective;
cohort;
single center
135 (65.5) Age, MELD and UKELD scores, gender, etiology of liver disease, history of decompensate liver disease, and PPIs use 23.7 (median) 8
Dam et al. 2016 [26]; Denmark 340/525 57 (10.4) Retrospective; cohort;
multicenter
594 (68.8) Use of PPIs; sex; age; cirrhosis etiology; VB; MELD score; increase of sodium, albumin, and platelets; dose of lactulose, spironolactone, furosemide and potassium-sparing diuretic 7
De Vos et al. 2013 [27]; Belgium 51/51 56 (8.9) Retrospective; case–control; single center 70 (68.6) None 1.5 (median) 7
Elzouki et al. 2019 [28]; Qatar 171/162 52.8 (12) Retrospective; case–control; single center 260 (78.1) Age, sex, DM, HTN, smoking, RF, and PPIs use 7
Goel et al. 2012 [7]; USA 65/65 57.6 (11.1) Retrospective;
case–control;
single center
83 (63.8) CTP classification 1 (mean) 8
Huang et al. 2016 [29]; Taiwan 1,870/1,190 54.1 (12.5) Retrospective; cohort;
multicenter
3,535 (73.8) Age, sex, CAD,
CHF, HTN,
DM, CKD, ascites, HE, and esophageal varices
7
Janka et al. 2020 [30]; Hungary 74/39 50–64 (range) Retrospective; cohort;
Single center
69 (61.1) Compensated stage, age, gender, comorbidity, etiology, MELD score and PPIs use 38.5 (median) 8
Khan et al. 2020 [31]; Pakistan 190/190 46.9 (10.1) Prospective; cohort;
Single center
220 (61.1) Age, gender, etiology of liver disease, CTP score, albumin, bilirubin, and PT 6
Kim et al. 2017 [32]; Korea 58/249 57.7 (10.4) Retrospective; cohort;
single center
239 (77.8) Age; sex; CTP score; SBP etiology; platelet count; ALT; GGT; BUN; creatinine; sodium; ascitic fluid protein; HC; H2RAs, PPIs, antibiotics, and Beta-blocker use 60 (mean) 7
Kwon et al. 2014 [33]; Korea 82/451 62.7 (9.5) Retrospective; cohort;
multicenter
410 (76.9) Age, MELD score, H2RAs, and PPIs use 1 (mean) 7
Mandorfer et al. 2014 [8]; Austria 520/87 57.5 (11.8) Retrospective; cohort;
single center
426 (70.2) Age, HC, history of
variceal bleed, varices, and MELD score
9.6 (mean) 8
Min et al. 2014 [34]; Korea 402/402 57.7 (9.8) Retrospective; cohort;
single center
609 (75.7) Age, gender, etiology of liver disease, CTP score, platelet count, GGT, BUN, creatinine, sodium, H2RAs, and PPIs use 25.1 (mean) 8
Miozzo et al. 2017 [35]; Brazil 151/107 54 (11.2) Retrospective; cohort;
single center
163 (63.4) PPIs use, CTP and MELD scores, and the presence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding 60 (median) 6
Miura et al. 2014 [36]; Japan 18/47 66.3 (9) Retrospective; cohort;
single center
44 (67.7) Age; gender; etiology of cirrhosis; DM; platelet count; creatinine; antibiotic, H2RAs and PPIs use; VB, HC, and HE; CTP and MELD scores and INR 5
O'Leary et al. 2015 [9]; USA 46/142 56.8 (9.3) Prospective; cohort;
multicenter
102 (54.1) PPIs use, SBP prophylaxis, age, HR, MELD and CTP scores, platelet count, gender, sodium, albumin, MAP, index SBP infection, and number of infections 8
Rajender et al. 2019 [37]; India 143/143 51.5 (11.5) Retrospective; cohort;
single center
188 (65.7) Age; gender; VB; HE; CTP and MELD scores; bilirubin; creatinine; cause of cirrhosis; ascitic fluid protein; PPIs, H2RAs and B blockers use 7
Ratelle et al. 2014 [10]; Canada 51/102 60.6 (15.1) Retrospective; case–control;
single center
114 (74.5) PPIs use, gender, DM, sodium, and MELD score 8
Schiavon et al. 2017 [38]; Brazil 93/98 54.3 (12.5) Prospective; cohort;
Single center
130 (68.1) Age, DM, previous hepatic encephalopathy and VB 32 (median) 7
Terg et al. 2015 [11]; Argentina 95/289 57.5 (11.5) Retrospective; cohort;
multicenter
265 (69) Age, gender, MELD and CTP scores, alcohol, HE, bilirubin, albumin, creatinine, sodium, INR, platelet and leucocytes counts, and PPIs use 8
  1. AKI: acute kidney injury, ALT: alanine aminotransferase, AST: aspartate transaminase, BUN: blood urea nitrogen, CAD: coronary artery disease, CHE: cholinesterase, CHF: congestive heart failure, CKD: chronic kidney disease, CRP: c-reactive protein, CTP: Child–Turcotte–Pugh class, DM: diabetes mellitus, H2RAs: H2 receptor antagonists, HC: hepatocellular carcinoma, HE: hepatic encephalopathy, HIV: human immunodeficiency virus, HR: heart rate, HTN: hypertension, INR: international normalized ratio, GGT: gamma-glutamyl transferase, MAP: mean arterial pressure, MELD: model for end-stage liver disease, NOS: Newcastle–Ottawa Scale, PPIs: proton pump inhibitors, PT: prothrombin time, RF: renal failure, UKELD: UK model for end-stage liver disease, VB: variceal bleeding