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Table 2 Pooled prevalence estimates for IPIs among intellectually disabled individuals stratified according to sub-groups in Iran, 2020

From: Intestinal parasites among intellectually disabled individuals in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables No. of studies Pooled prevalence estimates Heterogeneity
Sample size Positives Prevalence (95% CI) I2 (%) Q-p
Region
 Center 5 1135 596 61 (49–72) 93.9  < 0.001
 North 5 1169 430 21 (10–32) 95.7  < 0.001
 North-east 2 441 117 30 (25–34)
 South 2 259 120 51 (45–57)
Study period
 1991–2000 2 588 342 58 (54–62)
 2001–2010 6 1334 605 42 (19–64) 98.9  < 0.001
 2011–2020 6 1082 316 35 (19–50) 97.1  < 0.001
Sample size
 < 200 7 1029 403 37 (19–54) 98.4  < 0.001
 200–300 4 942 479 50 (24–76) 99.1  < 0.001
 300 <  3 1033 403 39 (20–59) 98.8
Diagnostic method
 D-F 3 580 197 27 (0–56)
 D-F-G 3 748 501 68 (55–80)
 D-F-S 5 1036 333 34 (21–48) 96.0  < 0.001
 D-F-S-C 3 640 232 39 (26–52)
Risk of bias
 Low 9 2123 884 42 (27–56) 98.3  < 0.001
 Medium 5 881 379 40 (16–64) 98.7  < 0.001
Overall 14 3004 1263 41 (29–53) 99.8  < 0.001
  1. D: Direct wet-mount; F: Formalin-ether; S: Staining (Trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen); G: Graham test, C: Agar plate culture; CI: Confidence interval; I2: Inverse variance index; Q-p: Cochran’s p-value