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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants in normal, H. pylori (+), and CagA (+) groups

From: Detrimental relevance of Helicobacter pylori infection with sarcopenia

  Normal (n = 2805) H. pylori (+)§ (n = 514) CagA (+) (n = 134) P value
Continuous values†
 Age (years) 71.37 ± 7.99 71.74 ± 8.07 71.43 ± 6.97 0.770
 BMI (kg/m2) 27.24 ± 5.10 26.72 ± 4.66 27.22 ± 5.13 0.127
 SMI (kg/m2) 44.69 ± 9.83 42.82 ± 10.97 41.82 ± 10.98  < 0.001
 Time used for 8-feet walk(s) 3.94 ± 2.34 3.80 ± 1.48 3.86 ± 1.61 0.542
 Plasma CRP levels 0.59 ± 1.07 0.51 ± 0.73 0.51 ± 0.68 0.156
 Plasma glucose levels 110.54 ± 43.88 107.61 ± 44.24 112.02 ± 51.24 0.464
Categorical values
 Male 52.7% 46.4% 49.1% 0.254
 Race     
 Non-Hispanic white 61.8% 55.5% 44.8%  < 0.001
 Non-Hispanic black 16.6% 22.0% 29.9%
 Mexican–American 18.4% 20.6% 22.4%
 Other 3.2% 1.8% 2.9%  
 Low muscle strength (difficulty lifting 10 pounds) 29.8% 33.7% 31.3% 0.883
 Smoker 16.4% 18.8% 15.2% 0.127
 Doctor ever told to have arthritis 44.5% 42.9% 43% 0.704
 Doctor ever told to have asthma 6.3% 6.7% 5.6% 0.069
 Diabetes mellitus 14.3% 15.3% 17.2% 0.049
 Sarcopenia 126 (4.5%) 56 (10.9%) 14 (10.4%) < 0.001
  1. Continuous values were expressed as mean and standard deviation; Categorical values in the categorical variables were expressed in number and percentage (%)
  2. Normal: without evidence of positive anti-H. pylori IgG or anti-CagA IgG
  3. §H. pylori (+): positive anti-H. pylori IgG in serum samples
  4. CagA (+): concurrent positive anti-cytotoxin-associated gene A IgG and positive anti-H. pylori IgG in serum samples
  5. BMI: Body mass index; SMI: Skeletal muscle index; CRP: C-reactive protein