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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the eligible, included and excluded participants and, among participants, pre-vaccine versus the post-vaccine introduction period comparisons

From: Differences in epidemiology of enteropathogens in children pre- and post-rotavirus vaccine introduction in Kilifi, coastal Kenya

Characteristic All eligible (n = 1250)
n (%)
Included (n = 718)
n (%)
Excluded*
(n = 532)
n (%)
Included vs Excluded
p-value
Pre-vaccine
(n = 241)
n (%)
Post-vaccine
(n = 477)
n (%)
Pre- vs Post-Vaccine
p-value
Sex (Male) 697 (55.8) 402 (56.0) 295 (55.5) 0.0850 139 (57.7) 263 (55.1) 0.517
Median age (IQR) in months 13.8 (8.2–24.6) 13.3 (8.0–23.0) 14.3 (8.5–26.6) 0.081 11.5 (6.8–21.5) 14.1 (8.5–24.2) 0.004
Age category (in months)     0.115    0.050
 0–11 528 (42.2) 323 (45.0) 205 (38.5)   126 (52.3) 197 (41.3)  
 12–23 402 (32.2) 224 (31.2) 178 (33.5)   65 (27.0) 159 (33.3)  
 24–59 203 (16.2) 106 (14.8) 97 (18.2)   31 (12.9) 75 (15.7)  
  > 60 117 (9.4) 65 (9.1) 52 (9.8)   19 (7.9) 46 (9.6)  
Admission year      < 0.001    
 Year 2013 351 (28.1) 241 (33.6) 110 (20.7)   241 (100.0) - NA
 Year 2016 348 (27.8) 245 (34.1) 103 (19.4)   - 252 (51.4)  
 Year 2017 196 (15.7) 61 (8.5) 135 (25.4)   - 641(12.8)  
 Year 2018 355 (28.4) 171 (23.8) 184 (34.6)   - 171 (35.9)  
HIV status     0.049     < 0.001
 Negative 994 (79.5) 565 (78.7) 429 (80.6)   171 (71.0) 394 (82.6)  
 Infected/exposed 78 (6.24) 55 (7.7) 23 (4.3)   14 (5.8) 41 (8.6)  
 Unknown 178 (14.2) 98 (13.7) 80 (15.0)   56 (23.2) 42 (8.8)  
Diarrhea history at admission     0.497    0.371
 Acute 1130 (90.4) 657 (91.5) 473 (88.9)   222 (92.1) 435 (91.2)  
 Prolonged 79 (6.3) 40 (5.6) 39 (7.3)   10 (4.2) 30 (6.3)  
 Persistent 10 (0.8) 5 (0.7) 5 (0.9)   3 (1.2) 2 (0.4)  
 Chronic 31 (2.5) 16 (2.2) 16 (2.2)   6 (2.5) 10 (2.1)  
 Bloody diarrhea (n = 1245) 75 (6.0) 42 (5.9) 33 (6.2) 0.796 17 (7.1) 25 (5.3) 0.328
 Vomiting at admission 817 (65.4) 498 (69.4) 319 (60.0) 0.001 171 (71.0) 327(68.6) 0.510
Hospital length of stay
 Mean (SD#) 5.2 (5.0) 5.8 (5.4) 4.3 (4.3)  < 0.001 5.5 (5.5) 5.9 (5.3) 0.317
 Median (IQR) 4 (2–6) 4 (3–7) 3 (1–6)  < 0.001 4 (2–7) 5 (3–7) 0.005
Vesikari Clinical Severity Score
 Mean (SD#) 11.4 (2.3) 11.5 (2.3) 11.3 (2.3) 0.183 11.7 (2.5) 11.4 (2.1) 0.062
 Median (IQR) 11 (10–13) 11 (10–13) 11 (10–13) 0.182 11 (10–13) 11 (10–13) 0.289
 Died before discharge 145 (11.6) 39 (5.4) 106 (19.9)  < 0.001 8 (3.2) 31 (6.5) 0.076
  1. * Due to insufficient stool sample provision; the bold emphasis of some of the p -values indicate those statistically significant