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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression comparing enteropathogen infection in the pre- vs post-rotavirus vaccine introduction periods (n = 718)

From: Differences in epidemiology of enteropathogens in children pre- and post-rotavirus vaccine introduction in Kilifi, coastal Kenya

Pathogen Type Pathogen Total
(n = 718)
Prevalence Univariate Logistic Regression Multivariable# Logistic Regression
Pre-vaccine
(n = 241)
Post-vaccine
(n = 477)
n (%) # + ve cases Proportion
(95% CI)
# + ve cases Proportion
(95% CI)
OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Virus Adenovirus 40/41 49 (6.8) 14 5.8 (3.2–9.6) 35 7.3 (45.2–10.1) 1.28 (0.68, 2.44) 0.444 1.16 (0.60, 2.24) 0.667
Any Adenovirus 104 (14.5) 28 11.6 (7.9–16.4) 76 15.9 (12.8–19.5) 1.44 (0.91, 2.29) 0.122 1.33 (0.82, 2.13) 0.247
Rotavirus group A 178 (24.8) 66 27.4 (21.9–33.5) 112 23.5 (19.8–27.6) 0.81 (0.57, 1.16) 0.253 0.97 (0.66, 1.42) 0.879
Norovirus GI/GII 103 (14.4) 27 11.2 (7.5–15.9) 76 15.9 (12.8–19.5) 1.50 (0.94, 2.40) 0.089 1.53 (0.94, 2.49) 0.086
Astrovirus 34 (4.7) 12 5.0 (2.6–8.5) 22 4.6 (2.9–7.0) 0.81 (0.57, 1.16) 0.253 0.97 (0.66, 1.42) 0.879
Sapovirus 38 (5.3) 19 7.8 (4.8–12.0) 19 4.0 (2.4–6.2) 0.49 (0.25, 0.93) 0.030 0.64 (0.32, 1.28) 0.205
Enterovirus 193 (26.9) 65 27.0 (21.5–33.0) 128 26.8 (23.0–31.1) 0.99 (0.70, 1.41) 0.969 0.97 (0.67, 1.39) 0.851
Parechovirus 119 (16.6) 47 19.5 (14.7–25.1) 72 15.1 (12.0–18.6) 0.73 (0.49, 1.10) 0.135 0.73 (0.48, 1.12) 0.158
Hepatitis A virus 11 (1.5) 1 0.4 (0.0–2.3) 10 2.0 (1.0–3.8) 5.14 (0.65, 40.38) 0.120 4.00 (0.50, 31.77) 0.190
Hepatitis E virus 1 (0.14) 0 0 (0–1.5) 1 0.2 (0.0–1.2) NA   NA  
Cytomegalovirus 57 (7.9) 10 4.2 (2.0–7.5) 47 9.9 (7.3–12.9) 2.53 (1.25, 5.09) 0.010 2.81 (1.36, 5.81) 0.005
Bacteria Enteropathogenic E. coli 217 (30.2) 68 28.2 (22.6–34.4) 149 31.2 (27.1–35.6) 1.16 (0.82, 1.63) 0.405 1.24 (0.87, 1.76) 0.240
Enteroaggregative E. coli 302 (42.1) 86 35.7 (29.6–42.1) 216 45.3 (40.8–50.0) 1.49 (1.08, 2.05) 0.014 1.58 (1.13, 2.20) 0.007
Verotoxogenic E. coli 4 (0.6) 0 0 (0–1.5) 4 0.8 (0.2–2.1) NA 0.176 NA  
Shigella spp. 83 (11.6) 21 8.7 (5.5–13.0) 62 13.0 (10.2–16.4) 1.57 (0.93, 2.64) 0.092 1.49 (0.87, 2.54) 0.144
C. perfringens/difficile 33 (4.6) 8 3.3 (1.4–6.4) 25 5.2 (3.4–7.6) 1.61 (0.72, 3.63) 0.250 1.51 (0.66, 3.47) 0.334
Salmonella spp. 15 (2.1) 5 2.0 (0.7–4.8) 10 2.1 (1.0–3.8) 1.01 (0.34, 2.99) 0.985 1.10 (0.35, 3.42) 0.877
C. jejuni/coli 56 (7.8) 17 7.1 (4.2–11.1) 39 8.2 (5.9–11.0) 1.17 (0.65, 2.12) 0.597 1.13 (0.61, 2.07) 0.706
V. cholerae 11 (1.53) 0 0 (0–1.5) 11 2.3 (1.2–4.1) NA   NA  
Aeromonas spp. 7 (1.0) 3 1.3 (0.3–3.6) 4 0.8 (0.2–2.1) 0.67 (0.15, 3.02) 0.603 0.74 (0.15, 3.56) 0.707
Y. enterocolitica 2 (0.3) 0 0 (0–1.5) 2 0.3 (0.0–1.5) NA   NA  
Protozoa Cryptosporidium spp. 98 (13.7) 28 11.6 (7.9–16.4) 70 14.7 (11.6–18.2) 1.31 (0.82, 2.09) 0.261 1.36 (0.83, 2.20) 0.219
D.fragilis 42 (5.9) 5 2.0 (0.7–4.8) 37 7.8 (5.5–10.5) 3.97 (1.54, 10.23) 0.004 3.90 (1.49, 10.21) 0.006
G. lambia 81 (11.3) 27 11.2 (7.5–15.9) 54 11.3 (8.6–14.5) 1.01 (0.62, 1.65) 0.963 0.96 (0.57, 1.61) 0.881
C. belli 1 (0.14) 0 0 (0–1.5) 1 0.4 (0.0–1.2) NA   NA  
C. cayetanensis 2 (0.3) 2 0.8 (0.1–3.0) 0 0.0 (0.0–0.7) NA 0.110 NA  
Helminth Strongyloides spp. 19 (2.7) 2 0.8 (0.1–3.0) 17 3.6 (2.1–5.7) 4.42 (1.01, 19.27) 0.048 4.60 (1.03, 20.55) 0.046
  1. # All models are adjusted for age, vesikari score, fatality, length of stay (LOS), HIV status, and gender; due to high coinfection rates, enteropathogens are modelled separately; the bold emphasis of some of the p -values and OR (95% CI) indicate those statistically significant