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Table 4 Chemicals used to incite acute and chronic intestinal inflammation

From: Animal models to study acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mammals

Chemical Effect Disease-like symptoms
Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) Extensive basal crypt and epithelial cell damage with long-term administration, increase in IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5; Th1 and Th2 mediated immune response [59] Acute mucosal and vascular injury in low concentrations, develops in UC-like symptoms
Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) Th1 mediated immune response, ↑IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ [212] Initial effects are acute in nature, develops into CD-like symptoms
Oxazolone Th2 mediated immune response, ↑IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 [211] Initial effects are acute in nature, develops into UC-like symptoms
Azoxymethane (AOM) Used in conjunction with DSS, tumour inducing, can lead to increased IL-21, IL-17A and IL-6; Th1/Th17 mediated immune response [298] Colorectal cancer-like symptoms when used in conjunction with DSS